Eating disorders can be misunderstood as mental health issues, often, weight loss may be considered the only sign, but this disorder can start before a person starts to look unwell. Our professional and caring counsellors are here to help better understand eating disorders in Edmonton.
Eating disorders are abnormal eating behaviours, which include anorexia and bulimia. Anorexia is defined as the refusal to reach or keep a weight considered to be the minimum required for a person's height and age. Bulimia is an eating pattern of repeated binge eating patterns followed by attempts to keep from gaining weight.
The characteristics associated with eating disorders include the following:
Unhealthy restriction of food
Weight loss amounting to more than fifteen percent (15%) of a person's usual weight
Heightened fear associated with weight gain
Misperception about body thinness, shape, or weight
Absence of menstrual cycles in females
Overuse of laxatives
Inappropriate use of diuretics
Inappropriate use of enemas
Fear of loss of control
Yes, if a person has an eating disorder, it is more likely that a close relative has had an eating disorder, mood disorder, or substance abuse disorder.
Females are much more likely to have eating disorders than males. In the United States, young women may have a greater tendency to develop eating disorders because American culture encourages females to be thin.
Eating disorders are usually diagnosed in adolescence or early adulthood. However, it is not unusual for someone who is 20 to 30 years of age to suffer from an eating disorder.
It is estimated that three percent (3%) of the young female population has some form of eating disorder.
Individuals with eating problems often attempt to keep this information secret from parents or friends. Therefore, other family members or friends must sometimes bring a young person's abnormal eating behaviour to their parents' attention or talk directly with the individual about these issues. The individual can then be encouraged to seek proper professional help.
A mental health professional diagnoses an eating disorder by taking a careful personal history from the client/patient and other available family members. The therapist must learn the details of that person's life. No laboratory tests are required to make a diagnosis of an eating disorder. However, in addition to the personal history, anorexia is diagnosed by obtaining body weight. A person must lose at least fifteen percent (15%) of her ideal weight to be diagnosed with anorexia. A growing child can be anorexic if he/she fails to attain eighty-five percent (85%) of the ideal body weight.
Bulimia is also diagnosed by personal history. There must be a history of binge eating, which takes place inside of a two-hour period. Following the episode of binge eating, the individual must attempt to prevent weight gain. Behaviours associated with the prevention of weight gain include vomiting, the overuse of laxatives, diuretics or enemas, excessive exercise, and prolonged fasting.
It is very important not to overlook a physical illness that might mimic or contribute to an eating disorder. If there is any question that the individual might have a physical problem, the mental health professional should recommend a complete physical examination by a medical doctor. Laboratory tests might be necessary as a part of the physical workup.
The treatment for eating disorders includes individual and/or group psychotherapy. Therapy focuses on education about the harmful effects of starvation, purging behaviours, and excessive exercise. Therapy also aims to improve the individual's self-esteem and acceptance of a healthy body image. Medication may help control symptoms of obsessions, compulsions, anxiety, and depression which are often associated with eating disorders.
The course of eating disorders varies widely. Some people have only one brief episode of anorexia. Others may struggle with the illness for decades. Many people have mild forms of anorexia or bulimia that never come to the attention of treatment providers. At the other extreme, some individuals with anorexia starve themselves to the point where their lives become threatened, and they need to be hospitalized for acute care. About five percent (5%) of those with anorexia die of complications associated with this illness.
If you, a friend, or a family member would like more information and you have a therapist or a physician, please discuss your concerns with that person.
At Gary J. Meiers, Ph.D., Jo Ann Hammond-Meiers, Ph.D. and Associates Ltd., we help our clients deal with eating disorders throughout Edmonton through compassionate, professional care. Call our office to schedule an appointment with our registered psychologists.